Earth Science

General Earth Science

Earth and Geology Images
117 Ways to Pass the Earth Science Physical Setting Regents Exam
Handy list of key things to remember about Earth Science.
CK-12 Earth Science
Click on the ‘Concepts’ button to browse by topic, or click the ‘Flexbook Textbooks’ button for online textbook at high school and Middle School levels.
Discovering Antarctica
Take a journey through this site to discover Antarctica for yourself. Each section features activities, images, video clips and fact sheets, to help you learn about this distant, frozen wilderness.
Earth: A Graphic Look at the State of the World
The site (and the accompanying wall chart) are here to show you – in as clear, objective, and accessible a format as possible – the condition of the world — both its natural and human elements.
Earth Science World
Includes an image bank, timescale, climate data, information about geoscience careers, and Earth Science Week.
The Encyclopedia of Earth
A free, fully searchable collection of articles written by scholars, professionals, educators, and experts … [which] are written in non-technical language and will be useful to students, educators, scholars, professionals, as well as to the general public. What is Earth Science?
An introduction to the concepts of Earth Science and links to further information on particular Earth Science topics.
GE Teach lets you compare two maps side-by-side. You can select from a variety of layer options, move, zoom in, and use drawing and measuring tools.
High School Earth Science
An online textbook at Wikibooks.
NASA Global Maps
Collection of maps NASA has published in recent years, showing Snow Cover, Sea Surface Temperature, Land Surface Temperature, Vegetation, Carbon Monoxide, Total Rainfall, and more.
Nature’s Fury: The Science of Natural Disasters
Earthquakes. Volcanoes. Tornadoes. Hurricanes. Awesome in their destructive power, these natural events remind us that we are small and vulnerable�and that living on this dynamic planet will always entail risk. An exhibit from the American Museum of Natural History.
Science Daily: Earth Science News
Browse the latest headlines or search by topic for earth science news and articles.


Earthquakes 101 (video)
Earthquakes can leave behind incredible devastation, while also creating some of the planet’s most magnificent formations. Learn about the geophysics behind earthquakes, how they are measured, and where the most powerful earthquake ever witnessed occurred.
Exploratorium: Faultline
Subtitled Seismic Science at the Epicenter, this site discusses historical and earthquakes, explains the basics of faults, plate tectonics, and waves, damage control, damage control, and current events in earthquake science.
National Geographic: Forces of Nature: Earthquakes?
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of Earth’s surface caused by the movement of rocks deep underneath. Learn what causes quakes, where they happen, types of faults, and more.
Nevada Seismological Lab
Studies seismic activity in Nevada and publishes the results. Includes Earthquake Maps of recent activity. Earthquakes
Information on earthquake preparedness.
USGS: Earthquake Hazards Program
Facts, images, student and teacher resources, publications, observatories, videos and more from the United States Geological Survey.
USGS: Latest Earthquakes
Maps of the latest earthquakes from the United States Geological Survey.

Geology and Rocks

Amethyst Galleries’ Mineral Gallery
Amethyst Galleries’ Mineral Gallery is a large collection of mineral descriptions, images, and specimens … together with several ways of accessing these descriptions.
Annenberg Learner: Rock Cycle Interactive
Site where students can learn all about rocks and geology, the science of rocks. They will learn how rocks can be identified, how they are formed, and how they change over time.
Athena Mineralogy
Here are mineral lists (IMA approved mineral names and varieties names) sorted either alphabetically or arranged systematically. Quite extensive.
British Geological Survey: Discovering Geology
Discovering Geology introduces a range of geoscience topics to school-age students and learners of all ages. Explore these pages to discover the fascinating processes and properties that shape our dynamic planet.
Geologic Time Scale
Information about the history of the planet by geologic era.
Geological Society – Resources
Geology resources for students, teachers and anyone interested in the Earth from the British Geological Society. Site resources include a helpful Glossary of Terms as well as Rocks & Fossils, geological hazards, and other materials.
News, maps, dictionary, and extensive series of articles on everything from geology careers, rocks and minerals, oceanography, astronomy, climate change, water, and many other topics related to geology and earth science.
Geology (U.S. National Park Service)
The geology and geologic history of the U.S. National Parks.
Glossary of geologic terms
Handy reference to terms used in geology from the Planetary Society Institute.
Mineralogy Database
Tons of information about mineralogy and specific minerals.
NASA: Earth Science
NASA: Earth Observatory
Tons of information and resources about the Earth as a planet.
National Geographic Resource Library
Search or browse thousands of materials inlcuding articles, maps, photos, and videos on a wide variety of topics. Filterable by material type, grade level, and topic.
Rocks and Minerals
Learn about the properties of rocks and minerals and how they’re classified and identified. From the National Park Service.
UCMP: Geology Entrance
The Geology Wing is organized according to the geologic time scale. Exploring this series of exhibits will take you on a journey through the history of the Earth, with stops at particular points in time to examine the fossil record and stratigraphy.
USGS: United States Geological Survey
The USGS site includes lots of information about geology, especially in the U.S. One good place to start is the FAQ page.
Visible Paleo-Earth
We are using paleogeography and paleoclimate reconstructions combined with NASA satellite imagery to generate our best interpretation of the global visual appearance of Earth in the last 750 million years, as seem from space.

Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics
Pages about plate tectonics, seismic activity, and the structure of the Earth.
National Geographic: Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that explains how major landforms are created as a result of Earth’s subterranean movements. The theory, which solidified in the 1960s, transformed the earth sciences by explaining many phenomena, including mountain building events, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
National Park Service: Plate Tectonics
The story of plate tectonics starts deep within the Earth. Although the Earth appears to be made up of solid rock, it’s actually made up of three distinct layers: the crust, mantle, and core. Each layer has its own unique properties and chemical composition.</q?
Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that explains the movements and behaviors of the Earth’s lithosphere, which is composed of the crust and uppermost mantle. The theory proposes that the Earth’s lithosphere is broken into a series of plates that are in constant motion, driven by the heat generated from the Earth’s core.
What Causes the Tectonic Plates to Move?
It’s how mountains form, volcanoes erupt and continents drift apart. So, what causes the tectonic plates to move? Discover the origins of the continental drift theory and how scientists explain these geologic phenomena.
World Atlas – Plate Tectonics
Lithosphere, the Earth’s outermost rocky shell, is made up of the crust and the upper portion of the mantle. This lithosphere comprises many slow-moving tectonic plates that interact with each other to create new geological features and cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.


International Tsunami Information Center
All sorts of information about tsunamis, from how they’re caused to current news. Includes data on recent events and exceptional ones going back to the 1920s.
NCEI: Tsunami Data and Information
NCEI and the co-located World Data Service for Geophysics compile a unique set of tsunami-related products as part of a continuing program to support the interests of tsunami warning centers, engineers, oceanographers, seismologists, and the general public.
NOAA: Tsunami Program
NOAA has primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. Includes tsunami basics, hazard assessment, tsunami preparedness, NOAA’s role in researching and tracking tsunammis, animations, and more.
NOAA: Education: Tsunamis
General tsunami information, with links to lessons, multimedia, data, background resources, and further resources for those learning about this phenomenon. – Tsunami FAQ
From the U.S. National Weather Service’s Tsunami Warning System site, questions and answers about what tsunamis are, how they form, tsunami safety, and related topics.
USGS: Life of a Tsunami
Learn how tsunamis develop. Another page on this site offers Information and models of some famous historical tsunamis.


BBC: Animated Guide: Volcanoes
Volcanoes are awe-inspiring displays of the powerful forces of nature. Use this animated guide to find out how they are formed and what happens in an eruption. Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions
An extensive set of pages about all aspects of volcanoes – on Earth and off, historic and current, large and small.
Live Science: Volcanoes
Find the latest news on volcano monitoring and research, current volcanic eruptions and to see amazing pictures of volcanoes.
National Geographic: Volcanoes 101 (video)
About 1,500 active volcanoes can be found around the world. Learn about the major types of volcanoes, the geological process behind eruptions, and where the most destructive volcanic eruption ever witnessed occurred.
Volcanic Explosivity Index
A visual scale for comparing different events and for understanding the amount of damage that events of different size can cause.
USGS: Cascades Volcano Observatory
USGS: Volcano Hazards Program
Facts, images, student and teacher resources, publications, observatories, videos and more from the United States Geological Survey.
Volcano Live is an educational website providing information on active volcanoes… as well as volcano facts, figures, history, and images.


5 Things You Need to Know About Water
Securing adequate supplies of clean water in a changing climate is one of the world’s most urgent social, political, economic, and environmental challenges. (World Economic Forum, March 2019)
10 Things You Didn’t Know About Water
How unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene puts children at risk. (UNICEF, March 2023)
Circle of Blue
Current news and information about water issues in the U.S. and around the globe.
The Deep Sea
A scrollable graphic showing what kinds of creatures can be found at various depths, from just below the ocean’s surface to the deepest trenches.
EPA: Water Topics
All sorts of information about water, water safety, water laws, and water news from the Environmental Protection Agency. Includes helpful articles such as How We Use Water and a link to the EPA Water Twitter feed.
Reports and news about flood conditions around the world, arranged by region.
How Much Do You Know About Water?
We all depend on clean, safe water, but how much do you know about your water and how to conserve it? Take this quiz to test your water wisdom. (Aug. 2020)
A Map of the Future of Water
The availability of fresh water is rapidly changing all over the world, creating a tenuous future that requires attention from policymakers and the public. (March 2019)
MarineBio Conservation Society
Explore the depths of MarineBio and find out about marine species, ocean conservation, research, and 100 Ways to Make a Difference Today.
National Geographic: Freshwater Ecosystem
Classroom resources to learn about the ecosystems of lakes, rivers, ponds, wetlands, streams, and springs.
National Geographic: Oceans
National Geographic looks at the oceans, sea life, and related news.
National Geographic: Water Gap
Article and maps showing how water is used and where there are ‘water gaps’ with more water being needed than is available, and how such gaps have increased in recent decades.
National Marine Sanctuaries
News, articles, information, multimedia library and more.
NY State Department of Environmental Conservation: Water
This page provides links to information on topics related to programs for the management and protection of the waters of New York State…
New York Times: Water
Links to articles about water in the U.S. and around the world.
NOAA: National Ocean Service
Charts, podcasts, articles, and information about coastal areas, tides, and oceans.
NOAA: Ocean Exploration
Provides public access to current information on a series of NOAA scientific and educational explorations and activities in the marine environment. Great graphics and videos!
An Ocean of Story Maps
… [T]he ocean community is telling powerful stories about ocean science, conservation, exploration and field work. The Story Maps in this collection were chosen for the outstanding ways that they are informing, educating, and inspiring scientists, conservationists, decision-makers, and the general public, on a wide variety of ocean issues.
Oceanus: The Journal Of Our Ocean Planet
Oceanus explores the oceans in depth, highlighting the research and researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in news, features, and interviews written by magazine staff, with full-color photographs and illustrations.
River Basins of the US in Rainbow Colors
High resolution map of all the permanent and temporary streams and rivers of the contiguous 48 states in beautiful rainbow colours, divided into catchment areas. (2016)
Smithsonian: Ocean
A unique, interactive online experience that inspires awareness, understanding, and stewardship of the world’s Ocean… with tons of information, news, photos, videos about the ocean, ocean ecosystems, and ocean history.
Surging Seas
Climate Central’s Program on Sea Level Rise strives to provide accurate, clear and granular information about sea level rise and coastal flood hazards both locally and globally, today and tomorrow. Anchored in rigorous primary research, our work distinguishes itself by its user-friendly maps and tools, extensive datasets, and high-quality visual presentation.
This Incredible Animation Shows How Deep The Ocean Really Is
Just how deep does the ocean go? Way further than you think. This animation puts the actual distance into perspective, showing a vast distance between the waves we see and the mysterious point we call Challenger Deep. (April 2017)
United States Drought Monitor
The U.S. Drought Monitor, established in 1999, is a weekly map of drought conditions that is produced jointly by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
The United States Water Crisis
How changes to the natural water cycle and increasing demand are causing water stress. Online version of a graduate school thesis. (May 2019)
USGS: Water Resources Mission Area
The USGS works with partners to monitor, assess, conduct targeted research, and deliver information on a wide range of water resources and conditions including streamflow, groundwater, water quality, and water use and availability.
USGS: Water Science School
Offers information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where you can give opinions and test your water knowledge.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.
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